Ocean pH Since 1850 and Projected to 2100

Ocean pH vs Atmospheric CO2 PPM

Ocean pH vs Atmospheric ppm 1958 to 2012

What is ocean acidification and why does it matter?

Antarctic ice melt is twice as fast as ten years ago

Antarctica Ice Cap Mass 2002-2020 (relative to 2002)

Sea level rise contributors

Subglacial topography of Antarctica

West Antarctic glaciers are collapsing, and it's "unstoppable"

Why is Arctic sea ice decreasing while Antarctic sea ice is not?

Antarctica Ice Cap Mass 2002-2020 (relative to 2002)

Arctic and Global Temperature Anomoly

Arctic and Global Temperature Anomoly - Cowtan & Way

Arctic Ice Volume in September - 1979-2013

Arctic Sea Ice Death Spiral

Arctic Sea Ice Extent

Arctic Sea Ice Extent 1979-2020

Arctic Sea Ice Extent Ananoly - Nov 2016

Arctic Sea Ice Extent Minimum 1979-2019 (relative to 1979)

Arctic Sea Ice Melt Season 1979-2020

Arctic Sea Ice Minimum and Maximum Extents (compared to the averages)

Arctic Sea Ice Volume 1979-2020

Artcic sea ice extent for the last 1,450 years

Artcic Sea Ice Extent Through Nov 2016

Projected Arctic Sea Ice Decline

Why is Arctic sea ice decreasing while Antarctic sea ice is not?

Increase in Extreme Precipitation Events 1958-2012

Is the current level of atmospheric CO2 concentration unprecedented in Earth’s history?

Total Heat Content (Oceans, Atmosphere, and Land) - 1960-2008

1979: 382 parts per million.; 2019: 500 parts per million (+118 ppm).

CO2 Concentration at Mona Loa Observatory Since 1959

CO2 Concentrations Last 800,000 Years

CO2 Concentrations Since 1700

CO2 Levels for Last 10000 Yerars (Mauna Loa)

CO2 Levels for Previous Month (Mauna Loa)

CO2 Levels for Previous Six Months (Mauna Loa)

CO2 Levels for Previous Two Years (Mauna Loa)

CO2 Levels for Since 1700 (Mauna Loa)

CO2 Levels for Since 1958 (Mauna Loa)

Cross-plot of estimates of atmospheric CO2 and coinciding sea level

Current CO2 Levels (Mauna Loa)

GHG Concentration Stabilization Level vs Average Temperature Increase

Global CO2 Emissions - Projected vs Actual (through 2014)

The Global Surface Temperature is Rising

If emissions of greenhouse gases were stopped, would the climate return to the conditions of 200 years ago?

Is the current level of atmospheric CO2 concentration unprecedented in Earth’s history?

The effect of (a) immunity (cumulative incidence; coeff. = -2.05, F1,300 = 96.42, p < 0.001), (b) precipitation (coeff. = -0.0009, F1,161 = 2.20, p = 0.14), (c) drought (coeff. = -0.14, F1,274 = 27.01, p < 0.001), (d) winter severity (coeff. = -0.05, F1,34 = 2.95, p = 0.09), (e) temperature (PIP: coeff. = 0.06, F1,276 = 2.58, p = 0.10; TAR: coeff. = 0.22, F1,144 = 53.59, p < 0.001; QUI: coeff. = 0.002, F1,104 = 0.0005, p = 0.98) and (f) temperature modelled as the relative R0 value at a given temperature (coeff. = 1.66, F1,121 = 17.33, p < 0.001) on the total logged number of WNND cases (adjusted for state random effects) in a given state and year (1999–2013). In (ad,f), the filled red points and fitted lines are univariate regressions for states in which that predictor was significant (a < 0.05), while open black points depict states in which the predictor was not significant. In (e), green crosses, blue circles and green triangles denote states where C. tarsalis, C. pipiens and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively, dominate transmission and the relationship is only significant for C. tarsalis. (Online version in colour.)

(a) Yearly WNND cases and fitted model (line) in nine representative states, and projections of the number of future cases under mean (M) or extreme (E—95th percentile) climate conditions for either current (cross-hatch) or future (star) climate projections. Error bars include both the standard error of the mean projected values and the standard deviation of the residuals between current projected and actual values. (b) Colours/shading indicate the significant variables in the fitted models by state with pie-charts showing their relative importance. (c) Human WNND cases and abundance of infected mosquitoes in Colorado when all humans were naive (2003, filled points, coeff = 0.99, F1,175 = 173.1, p < 0.001) and in subsequent years (2004–2008, open points, coeff = 0.72, F1,787 = 285.5, p < 0.001). Variables were power transformed (1/4) to equalize leverage and linearize the relationship. (Online version in colour.)

"If Covid-19 leads to a drop in emissions of around 5% in 2020, then that is the sort of reduction we need every year until net-zero emissions are reached around 2050," said Glen Peters, also from Cicero. "Such emissions reductions will not happen via lockdowns and restrictions, but by climate policies that lead to the deployment of clean technologies and reductions in demand for energy." Energy experts believe there will be a bounce back next year, but that, long term, the world will move to greener fuels.

Shaded blue horizontal bands illustrate the uncertainty in historical temperature increase from the 1850–1900 base period until the 2006–2015 period as estimated from global near-surface air temperatures, which impacts the additional arming until a specific temperature limit like 1.5°C or 2°C relative to the 1850–1900 period. Shaded grey cells indicate values for when historical temperature increase is estimated from a blend of near-surface air temperatures over land and sea ice regions and sea-surface temperatures over oceans.

The effect of (a) immunity (cumulative incidence; coeff. = -2.05, F1,300 = 96.42, p < 0.001), (b) precipitation (coeff. = -0.0009, F1,161 = 2.20, p = 0.14), (c) drought (coeff. = -0.14, F1,274 = 27.01, p < 0.001), (d) winter severity (coeff. = -0.05, F1,34 = 2.95, p = 0.09), (e) temperature (PIP: coeff. = 0.06, F1,276 = 2.58, p = 0.10; TAR: coeff. = 0.22, F1,144 = 53.59, p < 0.001; QUI: coeff. = 0.002, F1,104 = 0.0005, p = 0.98) and (f) temperature modelled as the relative R0 value at a given temperature (coeff. = 1.66, F1,121 = 17.33, p < 0.001) on the total logged number of WNND cases (adjusted for state random effects) in a given state and year (1999–2013). In (ad,f), the filled red points and fitted lines are univariate regressions for states in which that predictor was significant (a < 0.05), while open black points depict states in which the predictor was not significant. In (e), green crosses, blue circles and green triangles denote states where C. tarsalis, C. pipiens and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively, dominate transmission and the relationship is only significant for C. tarsalis. (Online version in colour.)

U.S. greenhouse gas emissions are grouped according to where they were produced (or burned - Figure A) and according to where they were consumed (or used – Figure B).

"If Covid-19 leads to a drop in emissions of around 5% in 2020, then that is the sort of reduction we need every year until net-zero emissions are reached around 2050," said Glen Peters, also from Cicero. "Such emissions reductions will not happen via lockdowns and restrictions, but by climate policies that lead to the deployment of clean technologies and reductions in demand for energy." Energy experts believe there will be a bounce back next year, but that, long term, the world will move to greener fuels.

There are about 60 major sources of greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. (source: Energy Information Agency-EIA). These sources are generally grouped into five economic sectors based on where the emissions were generated (Figure A): Residential and Commercial, Agriculture, Transportation, Industry, and Electricity Production. In this grouping, production of electricity is considered as a separate sector, and emissions generated at power plants are accounted for in the Electricity Production sector. In 2018 the relative percentages for the fives sectors were 29% for transportation, 25% for electricity production, 24% for industrial uses, 12% for buildings, and 10% for agricultural activities. In the electricity sector over the last 10 years, coal use has declined by about 35% while natural gas usage has increased about 60%. These sources can also be grouped into four economic sectors based on where the energy was consumed (Figure B): Residential and Commercial, Agriculture, Transportation, Industry. In this grouping, the emissions attributable to Electricity Production are distributed among the four economic sectors. Emissions from a given activity within a sector include emissions from production of electricity that is consumed in that activity, as well emissions generated by use of fossil fuels for that activity. In 2018 the relative percentages for the fives sectors were 37% for Industrial consumption 29% for Transportation, 23% for Residential and Commercial consumption, and 10% for Agriculture.

Shaded blue horizontal bands illustrate the uncertainty in historical temperature increase from the 1850–1900 base period until the 2006–2015 period as estimated from global near-surface air temperatures, which impacts the additional arming until a specific temperature limit like 1.5°C or 2°C relative to the 1850–1900 period. Shaded grey cells indicate values for when historical temperature increase is estimated from a blend of near-surface air temperatures over land and sea ice regions and sea-surface temperatures over oceans.

Forests man shift from sinks to sources

Estimated potential maximum sea-level rise from the total melting of present-day glaciers

Mean cumulative mass balance of all reported glaciers (blue line) and the reference glaciers (red line).

Other ice caps and glaciers in the northern hemisphere are melting faster too

Sea level rise contributors

Small glacier/ice cap contribution

Glacier Volume is Shrinking

Total Glacier Ice Decline - 1860-2010

1979: 382 parts per million.; 2019: 500 parts per million (+118 ppm).

U.S. greenhouse gas emissions are grouped according to where they were produced (or burned - Figure A) and according to where they were consumed (or used – Figure B).

There are about 60 major sources of greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. (source: Energy Information Agency-EIA). These sources are generally grouped into five economic sectors based on where the emissions were generated (Figure A): Residential and Commercial, Agriculture, Transportation, Industry, and Electricity Production. In this grouping, production of electricity is considered as a separate sector, and emissions generated at power plants are accounted for in the Electricity Production sector. In 2018 the relative percentages for the fives sectors were 29% for transportation, 25% for electricity production, 24% for industrial uses, 12% for buildings, and 10% for agricultural activities. In the electricity sector over the last 10 years, coal use has declined by about 35% while natural gas usage has increased about 60%. These sources can also be grouped into four economic sectors based on where the energy was consumed (Figure B): Residential and Commercial, Agriculture, Transportation, Industry. In this grouping, the emissions attributable to Electricity Production are distributed among the four economic sectors. Emissions from a given activity within a sector include emissions from production of electricity that is consumed in that activity, as well emissions generated by use of fossil fuels for that activity. In 2018 the relative percentages for the fives sectors were 37% for Industrial consumption 29% for Transportation, 23% for Residential and Commercial consumption, and 10% for Agriculture.

Estimated potential maximum sea-level rise from the total melting of present-day glaciers

Greenland Ice Cap Mass 2002-2020 (relative to 2002)

Greenland Ice Sheet Mass 1992 - 2012

Mean cumulative mass balance of all reported glaciers (blue line) and the reference glaciers (red line).

Sea level rise contributors

Soot from forest fires contributed to unusually large Greenland surface melt in 2012

The Greenland ice sheet could melt faster than scientists first thought

1979: 382 parts per million.; 2019: 500 parts per million (+118 ppm).

2018 Oil and Gas Methane Emissions – Distribution (~34 MMTCO2e)

2018 Oil and Gas Methane Emissions – Transmission (~34 MMTCO2e)

2018 Oil and Gas Methane Emissions - Processing (~12 MMTCO2e)

2018 Oil and Gas Methane Emissions - Production (~117 MMTCO2e)

2018 Oil and Gas Methane Emissions by Segment (~175 MMTCO2e)

Global anthropogenic emissions (excl. biomass burning)

If emissions of greenhouse gases were stopped, would the climate return to the conditions of 200 years ago?

Map of areas and locations for geological emissions of methane

Methane Budget

Methane Concentration

Methane Concentration and Growth Rate (1980-2012)

Methane emissions from four source categories

Methane global emissions - 2003-2012 decade

Regional CH4 budget in Tg CH4 yr-1 per category

Regional methane emissions - 2003-2012 decade

Shaded blue horizontal bands illustrate the uncertainty in historical temperature increase from the 1850–1900 base period until the 2006–2015 period as estimated from global near-surface air temperatures, which impacts the additional arming until a specific temperature limit like 1.5°C or 2°C relative to the 1850–1900 period. Shaded grey cells indicate values for when historical temperature increase is estimated from a blend of near-surface air temperatures over land and sea ice regions and sea-surface temperatures over oceans.

Energy absorbed by the Earth 1970-2010 - Most of the heat is going into the oceans

1979: near -100 Zettajoules; 2020: near +250 Zettajoules (+350 ZJ)

Fig. 1. (Upper) Global upper 2000 m OHC from 1958 through 2020. The histogram presents annual anomalies relative to a 1981-2010 baseline, with positive anomalies shown as red bars and negative anomalies as blue.

Fig. 2. Ocean heat budget from 1960 to 2020 based on IAP analysis data from 0 to 2000 m, and from Purkey and Johnson (2010) for deep ocean change below 2000 m (units: ZJ). Figure updated from Cheng et al. (2017). The anomalies are relative to 1958-62 baseline, and the time series are smoothed by LOWESS (locally weighted scatterplot smoothing) with span width of 24 months. The gray dashed lines are the 95% confidence interval of the total ocean heat budget.

Ocean Heat Content Anomaly

Fig. 4. Regional observed upper 2000 m OHC change from 1955 through 2020 relative to 1981-2010 baseline. The time series (black) are smoothed by LOWESS (locally weighted scatterplot smoothing) with span width of 24 months. The blue shadings are the 95% confidence interval. [Data updated from Cheng et al. (2017)].

Sea Surface Temperature - 1880-2012

Shaded blue horizontal bands illustrate the uncertainty in historical temperature increase from the 1850–1900 base period until the 2006–2015 period as estimated from global near-surface air temperatures, which impacts the additional arming until a specific temperature limit like 1.5°C or 2°C relative to the 1850–1900 period. Shaded grey cells indicate values for when historical temperature increase is estimated from a blend of near-surface air temperatures over land and sea ice regions and sea-surface temperatures over oceans.

Total Heat Content (Oceans, Atmosphere, and Land) - 1960-2008

What is ocean acidification and why does it matter?

Global Upper Ocean Heat Content is Rising

CO2 Concentrations Last 800,000 Years

Cross-plot of estimates of atmospheric CO2 and coinciding sea level

Is the current level of atmospheric CO2 concentration unprecedented in Earth’s history?

Post Glacial Sea Level Rise

“The multimillennial sea-level commitment of global warming

Shaded blue horizontal bands illustrate the uncertainty in historical temperature increase from the 1850–1900 base period until the 2006–2015 period as estimated from global near-surface air temperatures, which impacts the additional arming until a specific temperature limit like 1.5°C or 2°C relative to the 1850–1900 period. Shaded grey cells indicate values for when historical temperature increase is estimated from a blend of near-surface air temperatures over land and sea ice regions and sea-surface temperatures over oceans.

(a) Variables (blue) that influence human WNND cases (red) either positively (green arrows) or negatively (black arrows), either directly, or via effects on mosquito populations (purple). Note that it is the product of mosquito abundance and prevalence that determines risk to humans. (be) The fitted relationships for the temperature-dependent (b) biting rate , (c) mortality rate , and (d) the inverse of the extrinsic incubation period (L.D.K., A. C. Matacchiero, A.T. Ciota & A.M.K. 2013, unpublished data) were used to generate (e) the resulting estimated relationships between temperature and partial-R0 for West Nile virus for C. tarsalis (triangles, dashed lines), C. pipiens (circles, solid lines) and C. quinquefasciatus (cross-hatches, dotted lines; see Material and methods). (Online version in colour.)

Arctic Sea Ice Extent 1979-2020

Arctic Sea Ice Extent Minimum 1979-2019 (relative to 1979)

Arctic Sea Ice Melt Season 1979-2020

Arctic Sea Ice Volume 1979-2020

Radiative forcing and albedo feedback from the Northern Hemisphere cryosphere between 1979 and 2008

Shaded blue horizontal bands illustrate the uncertainty in historical temperature increase from the 1850–1900 base period until the 2006–2015 period as estimated from global near-surface air temperatures, which impacts the additional arming until a specific temperature limit like 1.5°C or 2°C relative to the 1850–1900 period. Shaded grey cells indicate values for when historical temperature increase is estimated from a blend of near-surface air temperatures over land and sea ice regions and sea-surface temperatures over oceans.

Antarctic ice melt is twice as fast as ten years ago

Contributions to Sea Level Rise (1993-2008 Average)

Cross-plot of estimates of atmospheric CO2 and coinciding sea level

Equilibrium sea level change relative to temperature change

Estimated potential maximum sea-level rise from the total melting of present-day glaciers

Expert range of sea-level rise forecasts for 2100 and 2300

1979: near -100 Zettajoules; 2020: near +250 Zettajoules (+350 ZJ)

Global Sea-level Rise 1960-2013

How fast is sea level rising?

IPCC Sea Level 2100 - All Scenarios

Local Sea Level Rise and Tidal Flooding, 1970–2012 (Boston, MA; Atlantic City, NJ; Norfolk, VA; Charleston, SC)

Local Sea Level Rise and Tidal Flooding, 1970–2012 (Boston, MA; Atlantic City, NJ; Norfolk, VA; Charleston, SC)

Map of Miami when sea levels rise 2 meters

Other ice caps and glaciers in the northern hemisphere are melting faster too

Post Glacial Sea Level Rise

RCP 8.5 Sea Level rise expected by experts

Satellite-based estimates of sea level between 1993 and 2011 (NOAA)

Sea Level Last 3000 years from selected sites

Sea Level Rise 1870 to 2000 (Tide Gauges)

Sea level rise contributors

Sea Level Rise Due To Thermal Expansion (for next 500 years)

Sea level rise for 1961-2008 (by source)

Small glacier/ice cap contribution

Soot from forest fires contributed to unusually large Greenland surface melt in 2012

Subglacial topography of Antarctica

“The multimillennial sea-level commitment of global warming

The effects of a 80 meter sea level rise on North America

The Greenland ice sheet could melt faster than scientists first thought

West Antarctic glaciers are collapsing, and it's "unstoppable"

Northern Hemisphere Snow Cover is Retreating

Radiative forcing and albedo feedback from the Northern Hemisphere cryosphere between 1979 and 2008

Global Soil Carbon

1975-1979 Average: +0.34 C

2016-2020 Average: +1.21 C (+0.87 C)

(a) Variables (blue) that influence human WNND cases (red) either positively (green arrows) or negatively (black arrows), either directly, or via effects on mosquito populations (purple). Note that it is the product of mosquito abundance and prevalence that determines risk to humans. (be) The fitted relationships for the temperature-dependent (b) biting rate , (c) mortality rate , and (d) the inverse of the extrinsic incubation period (L.D.K., A. C. Matacchiero, A.T. Ciota & A.M.K. 2013, unpublished data) were used to generate (e) the resulting estimated relationships between temperature and partial-R0 for West Nile virus for C. tarsalis (triangles, dashed lines), C. pipiens (circles, solid lines) and C. quinquefasciatus (cross-hatches, dotted lines; see Material and methods). (Online version in colour.)

The effect of (a) immunity (cumulative incidence; coeff. = -2.05, F1,300 = 96.42, p < 0.001), (b) precipitation (coeff. = -0.0009, F1,161 = 2.20, p = 0.14), (c) drought (coeff. = -0.14, F1,274 = 27.01, p < 0.001), (d) winter severity (coeff. = -0.05, F1,34 = 2.95, p = 0.09), (e) temperature (PIP: coeff. = 0.06, F1,276 = 2.58, p = 0.10; TAR: coeff. = 0.22, F1,144 = 53.59, p < 0.001; QUI: coeff. = 0.002, F1,104 = 0.0005, p = 0.98) and (f) temperature modelled as the relative R0 value at a given temperature (coeff. = 1.66, F1,121 = 17.33, p < 0.001) on the total logged number of WNND cases (adjusted for state random effects) in a given state and year (1999–2013). In (ad,f), the filled red points and fitted lines are univariate regressions for states in which that predictor was significant (a < 0.05), while open black points depict states in which the predictor was not significant. In (e), green crosses, blue circles and green triangles denote states where C. tarsalis, C. pipiens and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively, dominate transmission and the relationship is only significant for C. tarsalis. (Online version in colour.)

Annotated Global Average  1850-2017

Arctic and Global Temperature Anomoly

Arctic and Global Temperature Anomoly - Cowtan & Way

Change in average surface temperature (1986-2005 and 2081-2100)

El Niño/La Niña Global Surface Temperature Influence - 1967-2012

Energy absorbed by the Earth 1970-2010 - Most of the heat is going into the oceans

GHG Concentration Stabilization Level vs Average Temperature Increase

Global Mean  Anomaly

1975-1979 Average: +0.34 C

2016-2020 Average: +1.54 C (+1.2 C)

Global average surface temperature rise for the four RCPs

Global average temperature estimates for the last 540 My

Global Deep Open Temperatures Last 65 Million years

The Global Surface Temperature is Rising

Global Temperature Anomoly

Global temperature with trends for El Niño

Impact of ENSO on NASA analysis

increase of 1.5° C in 2029

Is the climate warming?

"If Covid-19 leads to a drop in emissions of around 5% in 2020, then that is the sort of reduction we need every year until net-zero emissions are reached around 2050," said Glen Peters, also from Cicero. "Such emissions reductions will not happen via lockdowns and restrictions, but by climate policies that lead to the deployment of clean technologies and reductions in demand for energy." Energy experts believe there will be a bounce back next year, but that, long term, the world will move to greener fuels.

Projected Temperature Change of Hottest and Coldest Days

Sea Surface Temperature - 1880-2012

Separating Human and Natural Influences on Climate

Shaded blue horizontal bands illustrate the uncertainty in historical temperature increase from the 1850–1900 base period until the 2006–2015 period as estimated from global near-surface air temperatures, which impacts the additional arming until a specific temperature limit like 1.5°C or 2°C relative to the 1850–1900 period. Shaded grey cells indicate values for when historical temperature increase is estimated from a blend of near-surface air temperatures over land and sea ice regions and sea-surface temperatures over oceans.

Temperature Anomaly Last Ten Thousand Years

“The multimillennial sea-level commitment of global warming

Does the rate of warming vary from one decade to another?

Increase in Extreme Precipitation Events 1958-2012

Observed Change in Very Heavy Precipitation

US Wildfires 1987-2012

Global Warming/Climate Change - Facts and Images

The following Fact Pages display various images related to global warming and climate change
(Hover your mouse over the text below to "popup" a window with a related image or text.
Click on text to open a new window with a detailed description.)

Acidification

Antarctic

Arctic

Atmosphere

Carbon Dioxide

Climate

Disasters

Droughts

Energy

Feedbacks

Forests

Glaciers

Greenhouse Gases

Greenland

Methane

Oceans

Paleoclimate

Permafrost

Population

Sea ice

Sea Level

Snow Cover

Soil Carbon

Temperature

Weather